### Can we circumvent Newton’s third law and learn to control gravity?

*Let us refrain from a detailed discussion of the physical theories and focus only on the practical side of the matter. My name is Aleksandr Isakov, I am an electronic technology engineer and a programmer, and I was fortunate enough to invent an unusual gyroscope. The unusualness of the gyroscope is justified by the fact that its rotor in vacuum performs forced three-dimensional oscillations under the control of the computer around one fixed point and simultaneously around three axes per cycle, according to an extremely simple formula. It was found that such oscillations of the rotor of the unusual gyroscope are coherent both in space and in time of the cycle. If there is coherence, then there must be an interference pattern. This is a fixed pattern of accelerations of each point of the rotor, and each point of the rotor can be compared with its elements of mass.*

*So what’s next? What can be done with such coherent oscillations? If we calculate the number of directions of such coherent three-dimensional oscillations, there will be exactly 60 of them. I knew that this was the number of the known elementary particles of the Standard Model, and I had a suspicion. After I uploaded the extremely simple equation of motion of the unusual gyroscope rotor to the certified simulator program, I was amazed to see on the computer screen a spherical screen with the dynamics and many properties of the elementary particles inherent to three generations of the Standard Model on it. Investigating the dynamics of projections (arrows) on the spherical screen, we can observe how each particle emerges from a pair of projections. Each pair of projections moves strictly along its half of the screen. The projections of particles do not have mass inherently. Let us name these pairs of particle projections “Is” and “AN”. Being massless projections, they move along diametrically opposite sections of the holographic screen without limiting the speed of light, but instead you can see on the simulator that they “sway” back and forth on it, and the forward motion of the particle “Is” continuously turns into the backward motion of the particle “AN”, and vice versa. In fact, this is a phenomenon called “zitterbewegung” (“jitter”) in quantum physics, actualized on the holographic screen and consisting in the fact that the instantaneous movement, for example, of an electron because of participation in such oscillations, always occurs at the speed of light, although the full averaged motion of the electron is characterized by the speed less than the speed of light. Each of these ingredients has a spin of 1/2ℏ in the direction of motion, corresponding to the left rotation in the case of the “Is” particle projection and the right rotation for the “AN” particle projection. The real motion of the “Is” and “AN” electron projections is composed of a large number of such separate processes, therefore the observed motion of the electron can be considered as the result of some “averaging” thereof (although, strictly speaking, this is quantum superposition that occurs here). I arbitrarily set the colors of the arrows that indicate the projections. I highlighted each of the three generations of particles with the red, blue and green spectrum.*

*Let us return to the device, the unusual gyroscope. All characteristic manipulations which we can make lie in the fact that we can switch the directions at the end of each cycle of coherent oscillations of the unusual gyroscope rotor, choosing one of 60 options. At the time of switching, we generate a short-term decoherence. All our studies lead to observing the correlation of information with quantum mechanics, holography and physics at the level of apples. We lack another large-scale component – cosmology. If we consider the Holographic Principle, then cosmology is its scale, the holographic horizon of the Universe. But the most important feature of the Holographic Principle is that all phenomena in the three-dimensional world can be projected onto the holographic horizon (screen) without losing information! This means that our directed rotational accelerations of the rotor mass elements can be projected onto the holographic screen, and we can shift them (and thus generate decoherence of oscillations). Thermodynamics on the holographic screen asserts that acceleration is an entropy gradient. In addition, gravity and space arise as a result of decoherence of quantum processes, therefore our shifts (controlled changes in the interference pattern from the accelerations of the mass elements) must each time lead to directed gravitational forces. *

*However, it is impossible that a directed and acting at a distance force of inertia exists in a closed system, says classical physics and its basic conservation laws. The basic law of conservation of momentum is based on Newton’s third law and prohibits the appearance of uncompensated force in a closed system. Although we have one indisputable advantage in order to “circumvent” Newton’s third law. We have a huge size of the closed system. And to obtain directed artificial force acting at a distance, we lack symmetry breaking on the holographic screen itself. And such anisotropy exists! Breaking of the screen symmetry is represented by the nonequilibrium arrangement of information on each of its halves – the global temperature gradient. But if you remember, each of the particle projections moves along its half of the screen. As a result of the displacement, the center consisting of two projections moving along different trajectories will experience a directed entropic force. It becomes clear how the mass of particles arises, how all forces and interactions arise, how one can create a directed gravitational force based on the artificial cooperative displacement of a huge range of rotor particles of the unusual gyroscope at the moment of artificial decoherence.*

Thus, summing up the above, we get a fundamentally new device – an unusual gyroscope for quantum measurements and another fundamentally new tool for measurements in cosmology or a gravitational telescope. The directed entropic (gravitational) force that we obtained during decoherence obeys Newton’s second law, allows to measure it and create powerful non-reactive engines. This means that we can control gravity. The vector of this force carries information about the temperature and entropy gradients on the holographic screen of the Universe without limiting the speed of light and distance. Thus, we have a holographic gravitational channel for communication with intellectual civilizations in the Universe. And there is more. If the coherent oscillations of the rotor mass elements in vacuum are synchronized, we obtain oscillating rotations of the rotor itself, and their magnets induce EMF in the stator inductance coils. This means that we get environmentally friendly energy of the accelerated expansion of the holographic screen (the so-called zero point energy) and turn it into inexhaustible electrical energy. At the same time, we prove the holographic principle with one extremely simple equation – the coherent law of evolution, and this can lay the foundation for the Theory of Everything.

For skeptics, I emphasize that we are dealing with an unusual gyroscope – this is a device, not a theory. Gyroscopes are widely represented in various fields of science and technology. Everyone has a gyroscope in his pocket (for example, in a mobile phone), and therefore the appearance of a new type of gyro with new properties is a matter of the near future. This is a rare case when the appearance of a new device is programmed by evolution itself (one example is the invention of the electric guitar), and it is only a matter of time when the device will be materialized.

An extremely simple equation of coherent oscillations of the unusual gyroscope rotor after uploading to a certified simulator demonstrates the entire zoo of the particles of the Standard Model. This is an undeniable proof of the unusualness of the device.

Today, we need to find the possibility of practical implementation of the unusual gyroscope. Dear friends! Perhaps, you have some thoughts on this?

**Unusual gyroscope and quantum mechanics**

Hello everybody! I’m Alex Isakov an electronics engineer and a programmer from Ukraine. The main for me — I’m independent an inventor and this my bread. I love modern music and my inventions, one way or another were connected with sound, whether it be new effects for electronic instruments, vocals or the digital protection of information in communication channels. The small-scale production of unique electronic devices in my micro-laboratory and their sale allowed me to continue research. This led me to study the vibrations of not only the sound but also the oscillations of the mass (rotors of gyroscopes). A gyroscope is a body of rotation (for example, a massive disk or sphere), brought into a fast rotation around one the axis of symmetry. My the first acquaintance with the gyroscope occurs in early childhood, my grandfather bought me the first toy. When observing the unusual behavior of a famous toy I asked myself if there were any other variants of rotation? When I became an adult, I answered this question.

The modern method of scientific visualization of data allows demonstrating on the computer screen the results of calculations using the equation of motion. If we load the equation of motion of a point in the computer simulator, we can see its dynamics. We take any point in the universe and produce its angular motions around one axis of the Cartesian coordinates. After loading the formula on the simulator screen in an isometric view, we observe an ordinary circular turn of the point in a circle. But already in the interesting way, there is a rotation of a point around two axes per cycle, options appear. But even more surprising is all possible angular displacements of this point around the three axes. When I saw this, I almost fell off my chair. Emerged spherical screen and I can see 60 pairs of projections, spins, phenomenon «zitterbewegung» and statistic the continuity of the trajectories of the particles of three generations… . As soon as we unload the formula for the angular displacements of this point around the three axes in accordance with the harmonic laws, projections of all elementary particles of the Standard Model arise. We can observe numerous properties of the set of particles obtained from one extremely simple formula. This is equivalent to if you connected to the TV the random number generator made and in the result, on the screen you can see your favorite movie. If this point belongs, for example to the spherical rotor of a gyroscope, then we get an unusual gyroscope. The rotation of a spherical rotor in a vacuum around three Cartesian axes per cycle must have new unknown properties. Today I need to find the possibility of prototyping an unusual gyroscope.

**The Holographic Principle, unusual gyroscope, and control of gravity**

In modern times in known works, It was demonstrated the existence of a deep connection between gravity and entropy [1, 2, 3]. More recently, fundamental ideas such as the Holographic Principle [4, 5] аnd the entropic gravity E. Verlinde [6], also known as emergent gravity, is a theory in modern physics that describes gravity as an entropic force.

Today the Holographic Principle — is hundreds of theoretical works by famous world-class physicists: G. ‘t Hooft, L. Susskind, J.D. Bekenstein, E. Verlinde, J.M. Maldacena, R. Bousso … . Already there are experimental studies confirming the operation of the Holographic Principle [7], [8]. Since 1997, more than 10,000 works have been published supporting this idea.

MGEF

The MGEF (Module Generator of Entropic Forces) project on base unusual gyroscope (UG) exists for the experimental verification of the Holographic Principle. If the Holographic Principle works, then it is possible to artificially create the long-range gravitational forces and this will allow us to control gravity and have many exciting apps without violating the fundamental laws of physics.

What is UG?

This is a small electromechanical device that can occupy a tenth of your desk. The spherical rotor UG have magnets and rotates in a vacuum inside the spherical stator with inductors under the control of the computer (there are sensors and drivers for producing forced oscillations of the rotor). Name UG is justified by the fact that its rotor produces complete forced oscillations around three fixed axes per cycle. Here the overwhelming majority of experts will oppose. According to Euler’s rotation theorem, simultaneous rotation along a number of stationary axes at the same time is impossible. However, I ask attention, for of full turnover of a physical body (or rotor) around three fixed Cartesian axes per cycle — possible. «Cycle» this keyword. In the scientific literature, there is no description of such fluctuations. We can use one a simple parametric equation of angular displacement of the point on the rotor according to the laws of harmonic oscillations.

(θx=Cosθ

(θy=Sinθ

(θz=-Sinθ,

where θx, θy, θz serial angular displacement of any pre-selected point on the rotor around the corresponding axes: where parameters: θ= πt and -1 ≤ t ≤ 1; θ is geometrical angle admeasured by arbitrary and preselected direction of angular rotations. The equation is given parametrically, and it is applicable for any radius of the rotor. We can We can ask max accuracy of the angular displacement if Δt → 0.

As soon as a new type of gyroscope — UG was invented and testing on the simulator, the question arose: what new properties can it have?

The first thing that catches your eye, looking at a very simple equation of the rotor’s motion, is that the oscillations of the rotor are coherent. Since the phase difference of the oscillations is a constant. In addition, using a simulator, we can observe a fixed interference pattern from accelerates (α) related to fixed Cartesian coordinates. We can see six groups of diametrically arranged rotational accelerations per cycle. If we calculate all possible directions of such coherent oscillations of the rotor, then their number will be exactly 60.

The equivalence principle

The equivalence principle tells us that we cannot distinguish between inertial and gravitational mass by experiment. Einstein invented an experiment with an elevator. The elevator is infinitely remote from the gravitating bodies and moves with acceleration. Then all the bodies in the elevator will be under the force of inertia and put pressure on the elevator base surface. That is, the bodies will have weight. If the elevator is not moving, but hanging over the gravitating mass in a homogeneous field, all bodies will also put pressure on the elevator base surface. Thus, it is not possible to distinguish between these two forces in the elevator. Therefore, all mechanical phenomena will occur equally in both elevators. Einstein extended this statement to all masses of physical bodies in the universe. If we are looking for a way to control gravity and Einstein’s axiom allows us not to distinguish between the forces of inertia and gravity, we must take advantage of this and involve the fact that there are forces of inertia which depend on speed. For example, it is the Coriolis force. The Coriolis force deflects the body from the rectilinear motion if these bodies are in a rotating non-inertial frame of reference.

A new type of gyroscope has coherent oscillations of the rotor

UG is a fundamentally new type of gyroscope, which differs from the conventionally powered gyroscopes not merely by the absence of mechanical axes and the absence of the gas cushion, but also by the coherent oscillation of the spherical rotor in the stator vacuum cavity. While the rotor of a conventionally powered gyroscope makes a complete rotation around the same axis per one oscillation cycle, the UG gyroscope rotor compelled quickly rotates around three axes (Ox, Oy, Oz). This is its conceptual difference from any other powered gyroscope and this feature is reflected by the author of this text in the formula of the relative patent application. The levitation of the rotor within the stator is achieved by suspending it in the active electromagnetic suspension. Typically, a gimbal is used in the three-axis gyroscopes, which allows free rotating of the rotor relative to the three axes, and this is what makes them akin to UG. Forced and full oscillations of the rotor UG around three axes per cycle — this is its fundamental difference from a conventional gyroscope.

Thus, per a cycle of coherent oscillations, the rotor UG makes a complete revolution around one fixed point — is the geometric center, the mass center and the center of the accelerations and around the three axes of the Cartesian coordinates.

For example:

We are given accuracy Δt = 1/360. This means that we began will make the angular displacements of any point on the surface of the rotor rotation about by one degree, for example, according to the law (Cosθ) around the fixed axis x in the constant minimal time interval. In the next equal and minimum time interval, we can produce angular displacements about the axis y, but already according to the law (Sinθ) and, respectively, z (- Sinθ). But since there are still about 359 degrees for every axis left until the end of the cycle, we continue with such triads, which eventually will end simultaneously for all functions, since the phase difference is constant. We have received a cycle of coherent oscillations. We do not yet need to know how the rotor points behave, what are their trajectories. Functions alternate and there are six groups of directed (Instant) rotational accelerations associated with fixed Cartesian coordinates. In space and during the cycle, they occupy permanent positions. We obtained coherent oscillations of the elements of mass in a vacuum.

The Coriolis force

Our objective is to obtain the maximum amount and magnitude of the Coriolis force acting on the elements of the mass of rotor. The magnitude of the Coriolis forces depends on the rotor angular speed. We can assume that superposition of the Coriolis forces obtained in this way is equivalent to a fictitious «gravitational» field acting on each rotor element of mass. Since the Coriolis forces are equal to each other and orthogonal, their resultant is zero, and the rotor center of mass remains stationary. We can increase these forces by increasing the rotor speed.

But, it is very important that we may simultaneously displace all points (all elements of mass), for example, around two of the three fixed Cartesian coordinates artificially on short time producing decoherence. And yes, we can make this at the end of the cycle. At the same time, we do not violate Newton’s third law as long as we do not while the claim that the rotor center of mass should change its position in space in such closed system.

Another thing is if the holographic principle works, which is indirectly confirmed in experiments. This allows us we should extend the size of the closed system to its maximum size, the holographic screen of the universe.

Another thing is if the holographic principle works, which is indirectly confirmed in experiments. This allows us we should extend the size of the closed system to its maximum size, the holographic screen of the universe.

A difference of temperature in different directions

Commensurate in scale with the Holographic Principle was the discovery of the anisotropy of the Universe in 1992 (anisotropy of cosmic microwave background — CMB) this the difference of temperature in different directions on the sky [9]. Experimentally confirmed by the anisotropy of the CMB and the discovery of coherent acoustic waves in the early Universe is of great importance not only for cosmology but for the whole of natural science as a whole. It can be said that large-scale three-dimensional sound coherent oscillations act before recombination period and ended after 379,000 years, but did not disappear completely, and recorded big scale of the global gradient of temperature on the holographic screen (according to the holographic principle, the projection of all phenomena occurs without loss of information). To investigating thermodynamics on the holographic screen, we must take into account the impact of it’s of global temperature anisotropy on the dynamics the projections. Holographic Principle can reveal a new holographic mechanism for the generation of masses of particles and for all known forces and interactions as an entropic force.

http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/cobe/

Control of gravity

Approximately half of the global temperature gradients on the holographic screen of the universe are different from each other, so two of the four groups of the entropy gradients (a half of them), due to the movement of the rotor elements of mass (during displacement the projections), experience a different interaction with these areas. A large-scale breaking of symmetry on the holographic screen, and the result of accelerating elements of mass during displacement lead to a directional entropic force that is applied to the geometric center (for a spherical rotor, this is the center of mass which coincides with its geometric center).

We can investigate device – UG in which gravity arises as a consequence of entropy.

According to the Holographic Principle, the change in this entropy when the matter moves leads to the entropy force that assumes the guise of gravity.

Fg=ΔTΔS,

where Fg is the gravitational force, ΔT is the temperature gradient on the cosmological horizon, ΔS is the entropy gradient resulting from the matter displacement and/or displacements on the holographic screen of the projection of the phenomena taking place in three-dimensional space ΔS ∼ α. After transformations, we arrive at Newton’s second law [6], and it means that the gravity can be controlled without exotic masses and energies. Thus, the integral gravity effect is determined by a variety of entropy forces interacting with the large-scale (global) dipole anisotropy represented by the temperature at the holographic screen of the universe. Gravity is a thermodynamic phenomenon. A series of generated controlled and directed gravity forces allows us to perform shifting of the entire UG structure in space in any chosen direction in a nonreactive way. This means that for one point — center and for all points, i.e., the UG rotor center of mass, the gravity, for example, the gravity of the Earth, can be fully compensated and/or overcome.

Today, numerous experiments with rapidly (7000 rpm) rotating of mass in vacuum demonstrate long-range forces in 2.5 N. The idea that gravity force can be thought of as an entropic force is considered in the experiment [10].

Conclusions

If we consider all possible directions of coherent oscillations of the rotor UG, then their number will be exactly 60. This number is in accordance number of elementary particles the Standard Model. And, indeed, after a boot in a certified simulator, an extremely simple formula, describing the dynamics of the rotor UG, on the computer screen in isometrics, one can observe the appearance of a spherical screen and the dynamics and properties of the projections of elementary particles.

Holographic Principle concludes that: gravity is explained as an entropic force. The equivalence principle leads us to conclude that it is actually this law of inertia whose origin entropic. This thermodynamics on screen, arising from the statistical behavior of microscopic degrees of freedom associated with a global temperature anisotropy and localized on the holographic screen of the Universe. Thus the force of gravity and his long-range is not postulated but derived from a holographic scenario.

As a result of the interaction of the gradient of the entropy projections particle arising entropic force applied to the geometric center of the particle. Therefore, this mechanism is maybe responsible for the appearance of a mass. A result of the encoding information on the holographic screen appears mass/energy, gravity, and space-time itself. UG can be used for a detailed study of this assumption.

The series generated in UG directed long-range gravitational forces leads us to be able to control gravity.

UG device can answer the question: Does the Holographic Principle is valid, according to which the physics of our three-dimensional space-time is equivalent to the physics with the two-dimension of the hypersurface.

We have a simple equation of motion for any arbitrarily taken point in the universe. The equation which on the certified simulator demonstrates many properties of the particles of the Standard Model and the place where our three-dimensional world really exists — two-dimensional spherical holographic screen (this is an optical hologram property when each pixel of the hologram carries information about all objects). The work UG is described by the same equation. This means that we are on the right track, experimental data confirm this.

Scientific visualization confirms the need for an urgent prototyping of the model UG. Details on my site: www.isan.com.ua

References:

[1] J. M. Bardeen, B. Carter, and S. Hawking, “The four laws of black hole mechanics,” Commun.Math.Phys. 31 (1973) 161–170.

[2] J. D. Bekenstein, “Black holes and entropy,” Phys.Rev. D7 (1973) 2333–2346.

[3] S. Hawking, “Black Holes and Thermodynamics,” Phys.Rev. D13 (1976) 191–197.

[4] L. Susskind, “The world as a hologram,” J.Math.Phys. 36 (1995) 6377–6396, arXiv:hep-th/9409089 [hep-th].

[5] G. ’t Hooft, “Dimensional reduction in quantum gravity,” arXiv:gr-qc/9310026 [gr-qc].

[6] [Verlinde, 2010] Erik Verlinde. «On the Origin of Gravity and the Laws of Newton». http://arXiv:1001.0785v1 [hep-th].

[7] Margot M. Brouwer, Manus R. Visser, Andrej Dvornik, Henk Hoekstra, Konrad Kuijken, Edwin A. Valentijn, Maciej Bilicki, Chris Blake, Sarah Brough, Hugo Buddelmeijer, Thomas Erben,Catherine Heymans, Hendrik Hildebrandt, Benne W. Holwerda, Andrew M. Hopkins, Dominik Klaus, Jochen Liske, Jon Loveday, John McFarland, Reiko Nakajima, Cristóbal Sifón,Edward N. Taylor » «First test of Verlinde’s theory of Emergent Gravity using Weak Gravitational Lensing measurements»https://arxiv.org/abs/1612.03034

[8] Niayesh Afshordi, Claudio Corian, Luigi Delle Rose, Elizabeth Gould, and Kostas Skenderis » Observational Tests of Holographic Cosmology»arxiv.org/pdf/1607.04878v2.pdf

[9] George F. Smoot «Cosmic microwave background radiation anisotropies: Their discovery and utilization» REVIEWS OF MODERN PHYSICS, VOLUME 79, OCTOBER–DECEMBER 2007.

[10] V. N. Samokhvalov “Non-electromagnetic Force Interaction in Presence of Rotating Mass in Vacuum,” [International Journal of Unconventional Science] 1(1), pp. 6-19, 2013 (Article received: 18 Nov 2012; Article accepted for publication: 23 Apr 2013) http://www.unconv-science.org/en/n1/samokhvalov/

**The model of an unusual gyroscope and a simulator dynamics projects of particles.**

The complexity of physical processes based on a holographic principle, for example, research at the level of quantum particles of the atomic nucleus and electronic shells, requires the creation of an effective spatial model of a computer simulator and an experimental setup for testing modern physical theories. To visualize quantum processes on the basis of an unusual gyroscope, a computer simulator of the dynamics of the projections of quantum particles «IsAN» was created.

Modern researchers consider the line as one-dimensional space. As soon as the zero point is placed on the line, as the origin, this means in engineering language the binding of this line to the real space. However, in this case, eliminating the point 0 from the set, to call a line «the one-dimensional space» means to violate the law of preservation of information of the holographic principle.

The development of Euclidean geometry has shown that its main element is not a point, but a vector, that is, a pair of points. Therefore, if it is required to consider a transition along a line from -∞ to a point 0 and to + ∞, then it is necessary to turn around the point 0 along the arc ε and make a rotation through the angle Ѳ = ± π.

If we ignore this fact, calling the line a one-dimensional space, then it means breaking the law of preserving the information of the holographic principle and, consequently, making a mistake in the foundation of physics. If we accept the impossibility of losing information as the basis for describing the world around, then it is necessary to accept the fact that the line has a discontinuity at the origin, regardless of the minimum radius of the arc ε → 0, but now this can not be called a one-dimensional space.

Next, we consider the steady-state concept of a two-dimensional (flat) space. If the plane is drawn without the origin, then this concept does not bear physical meaning. If the plane is tied to real space, then the origin of coordinates is fixed in it. In this case, the logic of the previous reasoning takes effect. The neighborhood of zero does not belong to this two-dimensional world. The neighborhood of zero is a punctured point on a two-dimensional space. Definition, zero physically means that the plane is punctured by a ray emanating from another emergent dimension. The letter also asserts that the plane carries an element of the emergence of space within itself, and this is confirmed by the holographic principle itself, and this statement is its basic content. In this process, the transition to other large-scale measurements ends, because according to the holographic principle, really there is only one surface with information — the holographic screen of the universe. Thus, continuing the transition to the plane from -∞ through the point 0 to + ∞, we must again circle 0 along the arc ε in order to make a rotation through the angle Ѳ = ± π. Likewise, as we circled the point 0 on the line, on the plane we can additionally rotate the coordinates around the point 0, therefore each arc ε will describe the hemisphere.

If we now fix the arc radius to zero (ε → 0), then on the quantum level there will be a rotation through the angle Ѳ = + π or Ѳ = -π, and on the pole of the emergent sphere there will be the interaction of the particle with the measuring device (and/or with temperature gradient), which fixes the value of classical physical values and the distribution of their probabilities. In our universe, this is determined by the fact that two diametrical pairs of points on a spherical screen project one point in the emerging three-dimensional space with the Euclidean distance definition. This formalism demonstrates the inextricable connection between particles — waves and particles — points.

Holographic principle, based on the law of information preservation, allows the projection of any phenomenon onto the holographic screen of the universe and roundtrip without loss of information. Therefore, naturally, the sphere we have obtained is considered on the holographic screen of the universe.

With such a geometric and physical interpretation of the abstract concept of a point is are detailed: each point of emerging three-dimensional space is a sphere. Thus, the particle is a point, and the statistical trajectories projections of the particle in a natural way (from a simple formula of coherent oscillations) arise on two hemispheres have different temperature and belonging to one sphere of the holographic screen (in the experiment, proved the temperature anisotropy of the universe [5]). Now dualism becomes understandable from the position of classical physics, the particle is localized at a point, and the wave occupies the entire surface of the holographic screen.

In quantum mechanics, particles have internal degrees of freedom, which, under thermodynamic isolation, are not related to the motion of the particle as a whole. The statistic dynamics of the particle projections may be demonstrated of trajectories.

Any experiment can be completely analyzed by means of the following rule: The probability for finding a particle possessing any given property is equal to the sum over all paths on the holographic screen that have this property; each path occurs with the weight cos(Sx/h)·sin(Sу/h) and is the result of inflation of the holographic screen; Sx and Sу is the change of the classical action along the paths x and y averaged to the global dipole temperature gradient ΔT(hs) on the 2D holographic screen of the Universe and h is Planck’s constant. The probability for finding a given value p for the physical quantity p { x, y (t) }, which depends on the paths x(t) and y(t) (p can be a two coordinates, entropy and the temperature at a particular time (single coordinate of the time of holographic screen), at different times — information can be presented emerged of the three coordinates (space-time and energy-mass), is given symbolically by:

The evolution of such a thermodynamic system is represented by classical trajectories that «survive» on the screen as a result of the interaction of the particle projections between themselves and the global temperature gradient and this process we can visualize in the simulator «IsAN».

In the simulator «IsAN» fragments of computer calculations of angular displacements are shown — a geometrical representation of the probability density of some projections of particles constructed by combinations of coherent oscillations from one parametric formula or a **coherent evolution law**:

The angular displacement of the state vector around the corresponding axes: θx, θy, θz and parameters θ= πt and -1 ≤ t ≤ 1; where is geometrical angle admeasured by arbitrary clockwise or anticlockwise direction, starting from the relevant semiaxis, and t sets the needed accuracy of angular rotations. The formula is given parametrically, and it is applicable for any radius. When Δt → 0. the coordinates of the center and ε → 0.

The small-angle approximation is a useful simplification of the basic trigonometric functions which is approximately true in the limit where the angle approaches zero. They are truncations of the Taylor series for the basic trigonometric functions to a second-order approximation.

**sin(θ)≅ θ**

“In the limit of a very large region, the bonding surface can be taken to be a flat plane at infinity». Then рrojections on holographic screen H = A=∞, S — Arc length — the path of the projected point and O — Line segment on a holographic screen. Then S = O and

**sin(θ)= θ.**

Thus, the number of directions of coherent oscillations (Number trajectories of apex) can be calculated:

**4³- 4=60,** (±cosθ,±sinθ→4 for 3 coordinates).

The table does not show four variants from all (64) that do not fall under the definition of coherent oscillations (there is no phase shift).

The table shows four variants from all (64) that do not fall under the definition of coherent oscillations (there is no phase shift).

We identify one bit of information with one of the phases of orthogonal coherent oscillations as the fundamental bit of natural coding of information in one area of the bar of a spherical holographic screen. But already two areas of the bar carry information from three bits, because according to thermodynamics on the holographic screen, the entropy of the expanding holographic screen naturally measures and encodes the information. The hologram is represented by temperature and entropy gradients that are stored and moved across the screen. Thus, only sixteen bytes of information encode all possible trajectories of simple particles and antiparticles.

In the simulator, the arrow indicates the projection of the particle onto the holographic screen of the universe. In the physical sense, the arrow on the spherical holographic screen is the direction of the local temperature gradient, the vector between the centers of two, once arbitrarily chosen, diametrically located areas of the bar. A pair or more projections of particles in the center of the projections form a simple particle.

Thus, the total number of elementary particles in the simulator is exactly 60. The Standart Model of elementary particles describes 61 particles (the last discovered was the Higgs boson).

On the simulator, you can see a picture in which there are pairs of diametrically located projections of particles, which in themselves do not have mass. We give these particle projections the names «Is» and «AN». Being massless projections, they move along diametrically opposite sections of the holographic screen without limiting speed of light, but instead it can be observed on the simulator that they «rock» back and forth on it, and the forward motion of the particle «Is» continuously turns into a backward motion of the particle » AN «, and vice versa. In fact, this is the realization on the holographic screen of a phenomenon called «zitterbewegung» in quantum physics and consists in the fact that the instantaneous movement of an electron, for example, because of participation in such vibrations, always occurs without the speed limit of light, although the full the average motion of an electron is characterized by a velocity less than the speed of light. Therefore for the projection center (electron), the locality principle does not break. Each of these ingredients has a spin of 1 / 2ℏ in the direction of motion corresponding to the left rotation in the case of the projection of the particle «Is» and the right for the projection of the particle «AN». The real motion of the projections of the electron «Is» and «AN» is composed of a large number of such separate processes so that the observed motion of the electron can be regarded as the result of some «averaging» (although, strictly speaking, quantum superposition takes place here).

After running the simulator on a spherical screen, you see special points — the poles of the sphere and the cluster points, the discrepancies between the projections of the particles. They can be identified as specific interaction points for particles and as nodes for the formation of complex composite particles. For composite particles, some of the projections consist of more complex sets of their trajectories. More complex composite particles, in physical terms, have more «windings» of projections on the surface of the sphere of the holographic screen.

To each fundamental fermion, there corresponds an antiparticle with the same mass. All the charges of the antifermion are opposite. Projections of antiparticles moving «backward in time» are also important for research, but they are still excluded from consideration in the simulator.

One of the arguments in favor of the reliability of computer simulation of the dynamics of the projection of particles is its natural appearance from one concise parametric formula of coherent oscillations. The first thing that is observed in the simulator after its launch is the dynamics of the projections of particles of three generations on a holographic screen.

All reasoning and conclusions obtained as a result of observation on the computer simulator for the dynamics of particle projections require verification on the operating model of an unusual gyroscope.

The fundamental bricks from which matter is built are not limited to electrons and two quarks. In addition to the charged electron, it is necessary to add neutrinos — as a copy of the electron, only without charge and almost without mass. «Almost» must be taken into account, since the global temperature gradient has a flat relief on the holographic screen.

The global temperature gradient of the Universe projected onto a holographic screen without loss of information.

The relief of the global temperature gradient interacts differently with the projections of the particles «Is» and «AN» on the holographic screen, which gives the particles different properties (mass, for example). This mechanism for many different particles of matter, according to thermodynamics on the holographic screen, is responsible for the appearance of the entropic force, which acquires the appearance of all known fundamental forces and interactions. From the law of inertia follows the property of trajectories of free bodies — «straightness», ie, the conservation of angles, and hence the Euclidean geometry of space follows. Thus, we see that not only in the general theory of relativity but also in classical mechanics, geometry is imposed by dynamics — the law of inertia, that is, the existence of the mass.

On the simulator, we can observe the existence of four fundamental fermions of the first generation. However, in addition to the first generation, there are two more. As can be seen, the projections of particles of the second and third generations in all properties are similar to the corresponding particles of the first generation, but each subsequent generation is heavier than the previous one.

To improve visualization of the simulator, three generations of particles are identified by three spectra: green, blue and red. In the grand unification theory, particles: quarks (u, d) and leptons are grouped into three generations: quarks (u, d) with an electron (e -) and an electron neutrino (ν_e) form the first generation, quarks (c, s) c muon (μ -) and muonic neutrinos (ν_μ) form the second generation, and the quarks (t, b) together with the tau lepton (τ -) and the tau lepton neutrino (ν_τ) are the third generation:

The masses of quarks and leptons grow with increasing generation numbers. Charged leptons — electron (e-), muon (μ -) and tau lepton (τ -) can be considered as three types of electrons with different masses (0.511, 105.658 and 1777 MeV, respectively). Since the set of particle projections in the simulator differ in position and number of windings on the spherical holographic screen relative to the global temperature gradient, this can explain the fact that the mass of some particles can be approximately expressed by the mass of an electron. We give a fragment from the book of the outstanding physicist of modern times Leonard Susskind «The Cosmic Landscape»:

«Here is the list of masses of elementary particles entering into the Standard Model, expressed in electron masses. All values are approximate

We do not see any obvious regularity except that the masses increase as we go down the list.

Numbers do not seem to be related to any mathematical constants of type π or the square root of two. The only observable regularity arises solely because I deliberately sorted the particles in the order of increasing mass. »

Solving this problem of Leonard Susskind can be the beginning of the study of fundamental quantum processes on the computer simulator «IsAN», and in the experiment, based on the real model of an unusual gyroscope.

## ** The coherent law of evolution**

Using the coherent law of evolution (one very simple formula), on the simulator «IsAN» we can see how elementary particles emerge and behave, how they exchange energy, momentum, and charges, and how they bind together to form larger structures from three generations. The coherent law of evolution has the potential to explain the basic features of nuclear physics, of astrophysics, cosmology and material sciences. With statistical methods, his explain the basis of thermodynamics and more. Further logical chains of reasoning connect this knowledge to chemistry, the life sciences and so on. The impression must be avoided that other sciences would be thought to be less ‘fundamental’. In practice, the coherent law of evolution would not affect much of the rest of science at all, simply because each of the elements of such a deductive chain would be far too complex and far too poorly understood to be of any practical value. The coherent law of evolution applies to ‘everything’ only in a formal sense. In the video of the certified simulator, after the parametric formula of the coherent law of evolution is loaded, from the equator of the holographic screen we can observe one cycle of statistical dynamics of projections of particles of the Standard Model. One can clearly see the specific oscillations of the projections of particles (60 pcs.) of three generations, «zitterbewegung»… . Details on my www.isan.com.ua

**Thermodynamics on holographic screen (hs) Dimensioned**

Moreover, “we can express the entropy change in terms of the acceleration” [2] [page 11. 14]. “Thus, we conclude that acceleration is related to an entropy gradient. This will be one of our main principles” [2] [page 11. 22].

**Δ****S ∼ ****α**

Let us consider temperature on a holographic screen:

(1)

where *Ths* is temperature on a holographic screen, is a positive or negative difference of temperatures in two points per a unit of distance between them –Δx, this is a vector value. The minimum distance limit equals to Planck distance. The maximum limit is the distance between two central points of the lobes of the global temperature dipole anisotropy of the Universe [3], projected on the holographic screen.

Considering that the entropy of a system depends on the distance, an entropic force Fentr could arise from the thermodynamical conjugate of the distance as [2] [page 7. (3.7)]

(2)

*Fentr* – essentially, the fundamental entropic force can be considered as a sign that it is manifested on the holographic screen in the range. Let us substitute (1) into (2).

(3)

where Fentr is an entropic force, is a temperature gradient, is a gradient of entropy associated with acceleration of phenomena projections on the holographic screen. Under the action of an entropic force, the center of projections and the center of accelerations coinciding with the former move in three-dimensional space. This is a fundamental entropic force (a super force) on the holographic screen which, as a result of natural coding of information in emerging spatial bundles, can be represented by four known forces.

ΔT is the temperature gradient, which is responsible for all the constants together with the global acceleration of the holographic screen.

ΔS is the entropy gradient associated with the acceleration of matter (in fact, information about the projected matter that moves across the screen).

The experimental data [3] on existence of the large-scale dipole temperature anisotropy of the Universe suggest that a pairwise “no-time-delay” displacement of projections of diametrically opposite centers of gradients (nodes and antinodes) of accelerations on the 2D holographic screen with its temperature gradient ΔT (Tu) induces oppositely directed impulse for each phenomena projection.

The entropic force also acquires a guise of gravity force in the emerging space-time. As the gravity force *Fg* dominates at large distances, but is very weak at small scales, its magnitude depends more on the interaction of the entropy gradients caused by the matter accelerations with the global temperature gradient of the holographic screen (the projections of dipole temperature anisotropy of the Universe.

** F g**

**=**

**Δ**

**T**

**Δ**

*S*

**.**

(4)

Then, **F g** is a directional gravity force,

**Δ**

**T**is a global temperature gradient on the cosmological horizon of the Universe,

**Δ**

**S**

**is**

**an**

**entropy gradient caused by the acceleration of matter. Hence, displacement of the phenomena projections due to complementary accelerations on the 2D holographic screen leads to the emergence of opposing and long-range directional gravity force in 3D space. This means that the entropic force displaces the coordinates of the center of the matter accelerations (the particles under quantum shifts) and takes the form of all known forces and gravity force, in particular.**

**Unusual Gyroscope MGEF**

** **

Relying on the principle of least action, let us consider a classical system. The classical limit describes the free motion of a system along a classical path – a straight line, or its free rotation around a fixed axis or around one point, with a three-dimensional oscillation, in which case the paths are created by equal and complete angular displacements of the points around each of the three axes per cycle. The key features are a straight line and equal angles. Thus, the existence of the arrow of time can be considered as a consequence of the existence of classical paths of free particles in the emerging space, or the absence of bifurcations of these paths. Such functions can be studied using spatial bundles and the properties of fractal sets. This conclusion gives us the key to considering (in a fractal at the level of apples) all possible paths (particles) as the paths of poles on a sphere that arise as a result of coherent oscillations of the sphere in a vacuum. Such method allows us to consider a binary method of information coding on the holographic screen illustrated by the operation of a unique hybrid of a classical and quantum device – the MGEF gyroscope.

**Coherent oscillations**

Slow computer simulation of coherent oscillation of a spherical rotor.

**Let us start with the definition of a coherent oscillation of a classical body.**

We consider the rotation of the physical body around a three fixed axis per cycle. According to Euler’s rotation theorem, simultaneous rotation along a number of stationary axes at the same time is impossible. If two rotations are forced at the same time, a new axis of rotation will appear. The rotation of a physical body per cycle around three fixed axes does not contradict Euler’s rotation theorem.

“The motion of a physical body when only one its point *О* remains fixed all the time is called the rigid body motion (rotation) around a fixed point *О*. In this case, all points of the physical body move along the surface of concentric spheres, the centers of which are located in the point *О*. Therefore, such motion is called the spherical motion of the body.” Based on the definition of the spherical motion, we obtain parametric equations of the coherent oscillation of the elements of mass from the principle of least action.

«Coherent oscillations of the elements of mass are the spherical motion of a physical body, the forced full harmonic oscillations of which are successively shifted by 90° or 180° and which are produced in a cycle by angular displacements of its points around the fixed axes of Cartesian coordinates associated with the accelerating observer».

(5)

Angles: θx- roll, θy — pitch, θz — yaw and parameters θ= πt and -1 ≤ t ≤ 1; where is geometrical angle admeasured by arbitrary clockwise or anticlockwise direction, starting from the relevant semiaxis, and t sets the needed accuracy of angular rotations. The motion formula (5) is given parametrically, and it is applicable for any rotor radius. When Δt → 0, we have small-angle.

“The small-angle approximation is a useful simplification of the basic trigonometric functions which is approximately true in the limit where the angle approaches zero. They are truncations of the Taylor series for the basic trigonometric functions to a second-order approximation.” [5].

**sin(θ)≅ θ**

“In the limit of a very large region, the bonding surface can be taken to be a flat plane at infinity». [1] [page 3. 18]. Then рrojections on holographic screen H = A=∞, S — Arc length — the path of the projected point and O — Line segment on a holographic screen. Then S = O and

**sin(θ)= θ.**

Thus, the number of directions of coherent oscillations can be calculated:

The table shows four variants from all (64) that do not fall under the definition of coherent oscillations (there is no phase shift).

The table shows all (60) variants coherent oscillations of rotor unusual gyroscope MGEF around the fixed axes of the Cartesian coordinates X, Y, Z.

According to the definition of a coherent oscillation, all elements of mass of a physical body move along the surface of concentric spheres around one fixed point. If we compare all the points of the physical body with the elements of its mass, we can conclude that we are dealing with a cooperative quantum phenomenon. The complementary accelerations of the elements of mass that are directedly associated with directed the fixed Cartesian coordinates, nodes and antinodes, make a fixed interference pattern that reflects the known geometric structure. Other ways of describing coherent oscillations (not parametric) can lead to loss of information. For example, the task of finding the final coordinate of point a system can be performed on two legs or one hypotenuse, in the second case it leads to loss of information, although the end result is the same. Recall that the main law of conservation for the Holographic Principle is the law of information preservation. The Holographic Principle asserts that its origin must lie in the number of fundamental degrees of freedom involved in a unified description of spacetime and matter.

**⇒ t**

From the experimental, i. e. a relative, point of view, physical consistency of the holographic theory is important, that is, its consistency with the relative dimensions in 3D. It is this relativity that allows us to analyze the emergence of space, time, and all known particles as a way of coding information on the 2D holographic screen. For the ordinary physical bodies and all of us – the observers in our classical world, – all projected information lossless about us is blurred on the holographic screen as a result of decoherence. This means that each point in the Universe is associated with each point and simultaneously with the global temperature gradient known as anisotropy of the Universe. From the position of quantum mechanics, the recording information is made when the wavefunction collapses, i.e., Instantaneously vanish everywhere except at the point where particle detected. Information — entropy recorded and stored on the holographic screen as temperature gradients, and this recorded information of the past time cannot be destroyed.

The second law of thermodynamics says the entropy of an isolated system can increase, but not decrease. Hence, entropy measurement is a way of distinguishing the past from the future in a thermodynamic system that is closed, according to the Holographic Principle it is a holographic screen of the Universe.

The entropy – the information on the inflationary holographic screen – increases in the same direction as the arrow of time — from the present to the future. It should be noted that the Holographic Principle tells us that since only a surface with two coordinates is real, only two of the three coordinates of space have time, the third coordinate does not have a time component. This tells us about the global violation of symmetry of space-time itself.

How does the arrow of time arise? It arises as a consequence of inflation of the holographic screen surface and of the natural growth of entropy-information on it. The inflation of the holographic surface leads to the emergence of the holographic direction and is accompanied by red shifts. This process is associated with some procedure of coarsening, or quantization (coarse graining procedure) of information on the holographic screen. Proceeding from this, let us den of the holographic screen inflation by the parameter q – the holographic screen “coordinate”. The q time dependence defines “the quantum path” of the particle on the holographic screen. We will consider the q(t) path of the particle as a discrete elementary random event with the coordinate x, y (Increases or decreases from the inflation of a holographic screen). For the analysis of coding of information on the holographic screen, we will regard the paths where the time sign is randomly variable from the present to the future and reverse. The multivaluedness of the path results in the fact that the holographic screen is in all its states q simultaneously, at any given moment t. The set of all such paths q(t) constitutes the surface W of discrete elementary events – random-process manifestations. A physical event or physical value correlates with each subset on the surface W.

So, how does the transition to a classical state of the quantum system of the Universe occur?

The fact is that each path of the particle on holographic screen visited both the present and the future, having traversed all possible paths. The contribution from all paths, except for one single, the classical one, was reduced due to the interaction with the classical device – the global temperature gradient on the holographic screen. This is the same quantum mechanism of interaction of a particle with a measuring device, which fixes values of classical physical quantities and distribution of their probabilities. In contrast to the energy eigenstates of the system, the time evolution of a coherent state is concentrated along the classical trajectories. The quantum linear harmonic oscillator, and hence coherent states, arise in the quantum theory of a wide range of physical systems. Hence, the existence of Hamilton’s principle (the principle of least action) in classical physics is a consequence of the existence of the global temperature gradient on the inflationary holographic screen of the Universe.

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**The challenge moving information faster than the speed of light**

Well-known physical theory — Holographic Principle points to the interesting phenomenon: information-entropy caused by the acceleration of matter can be projected on the cosmological horizon — a holographic display of the Universe without losing information. This means that at specially created conditions can be observed superluminal velocity and the principles of the theory of relativity is not violated. It should be emphasized that «ban» relativity theory applies only to the motion of material bodies and signals. Why can not you exceed the light limit? Because then the fundamental law of causality is violated, according to which the investigation can not outpace the cause. In many situations, perhaps the movement at any speed, but it is not the motion of material objects and signals — only projections. For example, if you take a flashlight (or, say, a laser, giving a narrow beam) and quickly describe it in the air arc, the linear velocity of the light spot in the sky will increase with distance and at a sufficiently large distance to exceed the speed of light. the light spot (rabbit) is moved between points A and B with a superluminal speed, but it will not be the signal transmission from A to B as a light spot carries no information about the point A. However, everything changes when running the Holographic Principle. Imagine gyroscope in which a spherical rotor is balanced in a vacuum. It can be rotated in either direction under computer control around one fixed point — the center of mass. If the conventional gyroscope rotor per cycle makes one revolution around the axis, in unusual gyroscope MGEF rotor can do a full rotation per cycle around the three axes. Elements of rotor mass — produce coherent oscillations, they are directed along fixed Cartesian axes. We have the direction rotary acceleration, which is projected on opposite sides of the cosmological horizon of the Universe without losing information. Because: «In the limit of a very large region, the bonding surface can be taken to be a flat plane at infinity. In some way, the phenomena taking place in three-dimensional space can be projected onto a distant «viewing screen» with no loss of information» — L. Susskind. The antinodes and nodes (accelerations) form an interference pattern of the six identical sections. These are analogs of our light spot. We can move the rabbits in pairs on the screen, but now they are represented by the information itself, which moves without limiting the speed of light. Thermodynamics on a holographic screen shows the emergence of a directed entropic force that obeys Newton’s Second Law. In fact, the appearance of a long-range force is the result of moving part of the projections and their interaction with the global temperature gradient on the holographic screen of the Universe. So we have gravity forces (attached to the center of the rotor of an unusual gyroscope). The computer for controlling the motion of the rotor determines the direction and magnitude of the gravitational force, thereby obtaining information on the position of the temperature gradients of the Universe in real time. The challenge moving information faster than the speed of light and control gravity can be solved in an unusual gyroscope MGEF (www.isan.com.ua). If in the Universe there is reasonable of civilization they will use this channel of communication.

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**References**

[1] L. Susskind, “The World as a Hologram”. J. Math. Phys. 36 (1995) 6377, arXiv:hep-th/9409089.

[2] E. Verlinde. “On the Origin of Gravity and the Laws of Newton”, 2010, arXiv:1001.0785v1 [hep-th].

[3] G. F. Smoot “Cosmic microwave background radiation anisotropies: Their discovery and utilization”, Reviews of Modern Physics, Volume 79, October–December 2007.

[4] A. G. Lisi «An Exceptionally Simple Theory of Everything», 2007, https://arxiv.org/pdf/0711.0770.pdf.

[5] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Small-angle_approximation

[6] QUANTUM -MECHANICAL PROBABILITIES AS SUMS OVER PATHS G. V. RIAZANOV

http://jetp.ac.ru/cgi-bin/dn/e_016_04_0909.pdf

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**A FUNDAMENTALLY NEW TYPE OF POWER GYROSCOPE**

Today, the Holographic Principle — is hundreds of theoretical works by famous world-class physicists: G. ‘t Hooft, L. Susskind, J.D. Bekenstein, E. Verlinde, J.M. Maldacena, R. Bousso … . Already there are experimental studies confirming the operation of the Holographic Principle (for example [3][4]).

The Holographic Principle was born after the discovery of the laws of thermodynamics on the surface of the black hole and suggests that the entire Universe can be seen as two-dimensional information (entropy) on the cosmological horizon — on the holographic screen). «In some way, the phenomena taking place in three-dimensional space can be projected onto a distant «viewing screen» with no loss of information» [1] [page. 3. 18]. Thermodynamics on the holographic screen, where gradients of the entropy may be are represented as accelerations of elements of mass, allowed E. Verlinde to deduce the fundamental laws of Newton (in particular the Second Law) [2] [page. 8. 8]. This means that for creating entropic forces do not require exotic masses and energy and all directed accelerations without loss can be projected onto the holographic screen of the Universe as entropy gradients.

Based on the Holographic Principle, propose of the creation unusual gyroscope MGEF (Module Generator of Entropic Forces — a hybrid of the classical and quantum device). The unusual gyroscope is that the cycle of its spherical rotor makes one complete revolution around the three axes.

The concept of the MGEF design — a thick-wall sphere (rotor) with the magnets in a vacuum inside another sphere (stator) with inductance coils. This construction allows to thermodynamically isolate rotor it from the environment and reduce friction.

The computer system used sensors and drivers creating forced coherent oscillations of the rotor and pairwise shifts of the direction of the accelerations (and accordingly projections gradients of the entropic on the holographic screen with global temperature gradient on it [5]). In accordance with the laws of thermodynamics, as a result of displacement of projections gradients of the entropic will be emerged uncompensated entropic forces. The third Newton law is not violated since the size of the closed of the system is limited to a holographic screen.

We formulate the idea — rotor MGEF produces forced coherent oscillations, creating the interference pattern of the accelerations and her shift of direction, as result, emerge directed entropic forces are applied to the center of the projections and to coincident centers of accelerations and the center of mass of the rotor. Entropic force may demonstrate on a torsion balance.

Registration of entropic force in MGEF may serve as evidence of the holographic nature of the Universe.

Modular design (the possibility of reprogramming) allows you to use an unusual gyroscope MGEF in various applications.

References:

[1] L. Susskind, «The World as a Hologram». J. Math. Phys. 36 (1995) 6377, arXiv:hep-th/9409089.

[2] Erik Verlinde. «On the Origin of Gravity and the Laws of Newton». arXiv:1001.0785v1 [hep-th].

[3] Margot M. Brouwer, Manus R. Visser, Andrej Dvornik, Henk Hoekstra, Konrad Kuijken, Edwin A. Valentijn, Maciej Bilicki, Chris Blake, Sarah Brough, Hugo Buddelmeijer, Thomas Erben,Catherine Heymans, Hendrik Hildebrandt, Benne W. Holwerda, Andrew M. Hopkins, Dominik Klaus, Jochen Liske, Jon Loveday, John McFarland, Reiko Nakajima, Cristóbal Sifón,Edward N. Taylor » «First test of Verlinde’s theory of Emergent Gravity using Weak Gravitational Lensing measurements» https://arxiv.org/abs/1612.03034.

[4] Niayesh Afshordi, Claudio Corian, Luigi Delle Rose, Elizabeth Gould, and Kostas Skenderis » Observational Tests of Holographic Cosmology» arxiv.org/pdf/1607.04878v2.pdf.

[5] George F. Smoot «Cosmic microwave background radiation anisotropies: Their discovery and utilization» REVIEWS OF MODERN PHYSICS, VOLUME 79, OCTOBER–DECEMBER 2007.

**Modern physics is in a rather serious ideological crisis**

The crisis in physics has been going on for several decades, and its corresponding depth tells us that we are on the threshold of fundamental breakthroughs. Therefore, the appearance of the Holographic Principle, a new non-trivial idea, and use of it in the great scheme of things looks natural.

The MGEF (a module generator of entropic forces) — a new project for the experimental verification of the Holographic Principle. If the Holographic Principle works, the long-range gravitational forces could be generated. Please see my website www.isan.com.ua for more details.

The equivalence principle tells us that we cannot distinguish between inertial and gravitational mass by experiment. Einstein invented an experiment with an elevator. The elevator is infinitely remote from the gravitating bodies and moves with acceleration. Then all the bodies in the elevator will be under the force of inertia and put pressure on the elevator base surface. That is, the bodies will have weight. If the elevator is not moving, but hanging over the gravitating mass in a homogeneous field, all bodies will also put pressure on the base surface. Thus, it is not possible to distinguish between these two forces in the elevator. Therefore, all mechanical phenomena will occur equally in both elevators.

Einstein extended this statement to all masses of physical bodies in the Universe. If we are looking for a way to control gravity and Einstein’s axiom allows us not to distinguish between the forces of inertia and gravity, we must take advantage of this and involve the fact that there are forces of inertia which depend on speed. In engineering, a powered gyroscope means a rotor rapidly rotating about the axis of symmetry, and one of its points is stationary.

The MGEF gyroscope is a fundamentally new type of gyroscope, which differs from the conventionally powered gyroscopes not merely by the absence of mechanical axes and the absence of the gas cushion, but also by the coherent oscillation of the spherical rotor in the stator vacuum cavity. While the rotor of a conventionally powered gyroscope makes a complete rotation around the same axis per one oscillation cycle, the MGEF gyroscope rotor rotates around three axes (Ox, Oy, Oz). This is its conceptual difference from any other powered gyroscope. The levitation of the rotor within the stator is achieved by suspending it in the active electromagnetic suspension. Each full oscillation cycle is divided into a number of microcycles, which in turn are grouped in triads of alternating angular movements of its points around each of the axes. At the time of one of the microcycles, it is physically no different from the conventional gyroscope; therefore, the distribution of forces in it can be considered as in the case of a two-axis or three-axis gyroscope. Typically, a gimbal is used in the three-axis gyroscopes, which allows free rotating of the rotor relative to the three axes, and this is what makes them akin to the MGEF gyroscope. Along with the external suspension, the internal gimbal is used. The rapidly rotating rotor in such suspension is ring-shaped, and it is rotatable relative to the axis Ox and along with the crosspiece fixed in a frame. The number of degrees of the rotor freedom is determined by the number of independent parameters, the task of which clearly defines its position with a single fixed point at any time. The gyroscopes are also common in that the rotor center of mass coincides with its geometric center, the center of suspension and the center of resultant forces, and the cylindrical or spherical rotor elements of mass move along the relevant surfaces of multiple concentric cylinders or spheres. These are called neutral or balanced gyroscopes.

The three-axis gyroscope with no external moments along its suspension axes is called a master gyroscope. In the neutral gyroscope, in simplistic terms, its rotational movement can be considered independently of the progressive motion along with the point of suspension, as the moment of progressive motion of inertial force and the support reaction moment relative to the point of suspension are zero, regardless of their magnitude and direction. Since the ratio of the oscillation phases is a constant, and they occur around the fixed Cartesian coordinates, such fluctuations are temporally and spatially coherent. Accelerations constitute fixed the six diametrically opposite and equal to each area of nodes and anti-nodes that form an interference pattern. The Holographic Principle allows us to make a projection of directed accelerations of every point of the rotor on the holographic screen without loss of information. This means that the diametrically opposite centers of accelerations of the MGEF rotor and the known large-scale (dipole) anisotropy of the universe are already on the holographic screen of the universe. Approximately half of the entropy density (temperature gradients) on the holographic screen of the universe are different from each other, so two of the four groups of the entropy gradients (a half of them), due to the movement of the rotor elements of mass during displacement, experience a different interaction with these areas. A large-scale breaking of symmetry on the cosmological horizon — the holographic screen, and the result of accelerating elements of mass during displacement lead to a directional entropic force that is applied to the geometric center (for a spherical rotor, this is the center of mass which coincides with its geometric center). According to the Holographic Principle, the change in this entropy when the matter moves leads to the entropy force that assumes the guise of gravity.

Fg=ΔTΔS ,

Where Fg is the gravitational force, ΔT is the temperature gradient on the cosmological horizon, ΔS is the entropy gradient resulting from the matter displacement. After transformations, we arrive at Newton’s second law, and it means that the gravity can be controlled without exotic masses and energies. Thus, the integral gravity effect is determined by a variety of entropy forces interacting with the large-scale (global) dipole anisotropy represented by the temperature at the holographic screen of the universe. Gravity is a thermodynamic phenomenon. This mechanism is similar to the principle underlying the optical hologram as information communication of each its pixel with information as a whole.

A series of generated controlled and directed gravity forces allows us to perform shifting of the entire MGEF gyroscope structure in space in any chosen direction in a nonreactive way. This means that for one point, i.e., the MGEF rotor center of mass, the gravity, for example, the gravity of the Earth, can be fully compensated and/or overcome.

Shown — very slow simulation of coherent fluctuation of a rotor of MGEF on one of the 60 options.

This technology can be expanded to a meaningful scale, it could portend a revolution in the space industry. Spacecraft would no longer need hundreds of kilograms or even tons of propellant to stay in orbit or explore deep space. The International Space Station, for instance, burns through approximately 4 tons of propellant each year, and more fuel must be delivered to it regularly at a cost of about $20,000 a kilogram.

**Pixels and voxels**

We have so far only a mental (not real) device — an unusual MGEF gyroscope. Today there is a process of searching for ways of its practical implementation. But even now, considering (three-dimensional coherent oscillations of its rotor) and thanks to fractality, we can find information about the structure of our world and understand its physics. To understand is to define, through something very simple.

One of the surprises of modern physics was the discovery that the world is a kind of holographic. But even more surprising was the fact that the number of pixels that this hologram contains is proportional to the surface area surrounding the described scene, and not to its volume In other words: everything that is, for example, in your room is a holographic image recorded on a two-dimensional the surface that bounds this room. That is, in fact, you and all the other furnishings of the room — all this is a quantum hologram, recorded on the surface bounding the volume. This hologram is a two-dimensional array of tiny pixels, each of which has a size of the order of the Planck length! Of course, the nature of the quantum hologram and the method for encoding the two-dimensional data are very different from those of conventional optical holograms. But they have one common feature: the image of a three-dimensional world is completely encrypted on a 2D surface. The image on the computer screen is a two-dimensional surface filled with luminous pixels. Each pixel carries information about the intensity and color of the 2D image. The actual data stored in the computer’s memory contains information about the color and intensity of individual pixels. Like a picture or a photo, a computer screen is a flat view of a real three-dimensional scene.

What should we do to reliably display information about a three-dimensional object, including also information about its internal content? The answer is obvious: instead of a set of pixels filling the plane, we need a set of spatial elements — voxels, which fill the volume of the displayed scene. A voxel represents a value on a regular grid in three-dimensional space. As with pixels in a bitmap, voxels themselves do not typically have their position (their coordinates) explicitly encoded along with their values. Instead, the position of a voxel is inferred based upon its position relative to other voxels (i.e., its position in the data structure that makes up a single volumetric image). In contrast to pixels and voxels, points and polygons are often explicitly represented by the coordinates of their vertices. A direct consequence of this difference is that polygons are able to efficiently represent simple 3D structures with lots of empty or homogeneously filled space, while voxels are good at representing regularly sampled spaces that are non-homogeneously filled. (Wikipedia). Filling a space with voxels is a much more complicated task than filling the surface with pixels. For example, if a flat screen of a computer has a resolution of one thousand per thousand pixels, then to fill it you will need a million pixels. But if we want to fill the volume with the same resolution, we need 1000x1000x1000 = 1,000,000,000 billion voxels.

However, the holographic method of recording images presents us with a surprise. The optical hologram in our example is a two-dimensional image — an image on a film that allows to unambiguously restore a full three-dimensional image using only a million pixels, not a billion. Of course, a hologram is a two-dimensional image and requires coherent light sources (for single-layer surfaces), but it contains complete information about the three-dimensional scene. However, if you just look at the photographic plate with the image of the hologram, you will not see anything meaningful: the image of the real world on the holographic plate is coded. Moreover, coding by means of coherent oscillations is common. For a black hole, this Hawking radiation, for an optical hologram, is a laser light source, for an unusual gyroscope, these are three-dimensional coherent vibrations of the elements of its rotor’s mass, and for a quantum hologram this product is the product of the probabilities of two one-dimensional wave functions and the time arrow, which leads to inflation of the holographic Screen — the holographic horizon of the Universe against the background of its global temperature. The very holographic horizon of the Universe is little known, but it is assumed that located beyond cosmological horizon. Nevertheless, for us now it is not so important because according to the Holographic Principle all phenomena in our Universe can be projected onto its surface and back to the projection center (in everybody points of space) without loss of information!

The important question now is: «What is real in an optical hologram — a 2D film or a 3D image»? The answer will be fully valid for the Holographic Principle itself: a surface with information is real, and a 3D image is an illusion constructed by the informational coding of the laws of physics. Moreover, the difference lies in the fact that for an optical hologram it is only a 3D optical image, and for a quantum hologram, in addition to the 3D optical image, it is the entropic forces on the holographic surface of the Universe that lead to the appearance of voxel forces and interactions. The appearance of the entropic force itself is described by thermodynamics on a 2D inflationary holographic screen and is due to global and local temperature gradients on it.

George Smoot, one of the pioneers in detecting the global temperature anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background, once compared the relic radiation map in the sky with the face of God. Would like to add that the scale of the discovery of the temperature anisotropy of the Universe is commensurable with the scale of the discovery of the Holographic Principle. A quantum hologram is an interesting and accurate interpretation of this fractal picture.

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**The paradox of star velocities on the periphery of galaxies.**

Imagine a hole in which the ball lies. If you move it, it starts to oscillate and without friction, it will fluctuate forever — you will get a classic oscillator. But if you do not touch the ball, it will just lie on the bottom.

However, a quantum particle is not a ball, but a wave. Therefore, the ground state of a quantum oscillator has a nonzero energy. It is a wave with a single crest inside the hole. That is, the quantum particle oscillates even in the ground state. These are the so-called zero-point oscillations. They occur in any quantum system, including quantum field theory.

In quantum field theory, a vacuum is not emptiness. It consists of zero-point oscillations. If there is no gravity, then the energy is calculated from the total energy of these zero-point oscillations. They are kind of discarded. And all particles in quantum field theory are excitation over zero-point oscillations.

However, in the presence of gravity, zero-point oscillations cannot be discarded. They do something «weigh», that is, distort the space-time. Therefore, there is a problem.

It is theoretically predicted that zero-point oscillations constitute a huge vacuum energy. However, observations show that the vacuum energy in our universe is very small. This is what is now called dark energy in space. It leads to an accelerated expansion of the universe, as something «weighs». This is precisely the problem of the cosmological constant: on the one hand, quantum field theory predicts that it is huge, and on the other hand, we observe very small. Where does the huge vacuum energy, predicted by quantum field theory, go? No answer if we deny or ignore the holographic principle. The answer lies in decoherence. Since the world around us is the result of decoherence of quantum processes, the kinetic energy of multiple harmonic oscillators is uniformly distributed throughout the holographic screen, increasing entropy on it. But if we take a lot of harmonic oscillators at the level of «apples» and make them produce coherent oscillations, under the control of the computer (in other words, create an unusual gyroscope), this can lead us to new incredible properties. For example, the possibility of using the energy of the accelerated expanding holographic screen of the universe, controlled gravity, the receipt and transmission of information without limiting the speed of light, and so on.

Proof that an unusual gyroscope can convert the energy of accelerated screen expansion into electrical one is a short formula and video that describes dynamics and a lot of properties of quasi-particles on a certified simulator and it is also used for coherent oscillations of a rotor. From this simple formula, one can deduce all the fundamental laws of physics, and mathematics shows that the expansion of the holographic screen is the cause of the accelerated motion of stars on the periphery of galaxies, since they, like the gyroscope rotor, make of coherent oscillations in a vacuum.

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**Motivation**

I suggest you take my place for a minute. For example, you invented a new type of gyroscope (www.isan.com.ua), in which the rotor under the control of the computer rotates per cycle around three axes in a vacuum, rather than around the same axis as conventional gyroscopes. And you had a suspicion that such a gyroscope might have previously unknown properties. Considering the oscillatory rotor of an unusual gyroscope, you come to the surprising conclusion: the oscillations of the rotor are coherent and you have exactly 60 variants of directions of such oscillations. At the end of each cycle, you can make changes — any two of the three rotation axes change places and get new directions. You without violating Newton’s third law can make violating the translational symmetryInternal forces in such a closed system must be compensated. But the fact, you have three gyroscopes in one, and you can control the direction of rotation of the rotor regardless of the external environment and this gives hope. What to do next? It is natural to seek a theory on the Internet. Coherence is the key to holography. And you will find a holographic principle (the authors are known all over the world). Since 1997, more than 10,000 works have been published supporting this idea. The Holographic Principle is completely consistent with the work of your unusual gyroscope, although many consider this theory a mathematical abstraction. This myth of the non-domination of the holographic idea in physics has already been partially dispelled by the thermodynamics of Verlinde but will be immediately destroyed by the working prototype of an unusual gyroscope. Of course, if it turns out that the long-range entropic forces in an unusual gyro are not compensated. And this is possible since the holographic screen has a global temperature anisotropy and thermodynamics on it demonstrated emerge long-range gravity force. The symmetry on the screen is have broken and, you can additionally violate the translational symmetry, the interaction generates a directed force, and the holographic principle confirms the action at a distance of this entropy (gravitational) force. This means that the size of the closed system is dimensions of the holographic screen of the Universe and therefore MGEF does not haven there are problems with the law of conservation of momentum.

A series of generated controlled and directed gravity forces allows us to perform shifting of the entire MGEF gyroscope structure in space in any chosen direction in a nonreactive way. This means that for one point, i.e., the MGEF rotor center of mass, the gravity, for example, the gravity of the Earth, can be fully compensated and/or overcome. Thus, the entropic force acts on the entire structure. Of course, you can consider other theories, but they will always violate Newton’s third law, regardless of on what postulates and «experiments» stand the authors.

This new holographic technology can be expanded to a meaningful scale, it could portend a revolution in the space industry. Spacecraft would no longer need hundreds of kilograms or even tons of propellant to stay in orbit or explore deep space. The International Space Station, for instance, burns through approximately 4 tons of propellant each year, and more fuel must be delivered to it regularly at a cost of about $20,000 a kilogram.you can consider other theories, but they will always violate Newton’s third law, regardless of on what postulates and «experiments» stand the authors. Therefore are of no interest. You work alone and do not represent any organization.

This technology can be expanded to a meaningful scale, it could portend a revolution in the space industry. Spacecraft would no longer need hundreds of kilograms or even tons of propellant to stay in orbit or explore deep space. The International Space Station, for instance, burns through approximately 4 tons of propellant each year, and more fuel must be delivered to it regularly at a cost of about $20,000 a kilogram.

**Is The Universe A Hologram?**

The theorists say: ‘Yes’. The MGEF (Module Generator of Entropic Forces) project is intended for the experimental check of the Holographic Principle. If the Holographic Principle works, we receive a set of the practical results.

MGEF — unusual the gyroscope. If in the normal gyroscope rotor complete oscillation occurs around the same axis per a cycle, the gyroscope MGEF it rotor around three orthogonal axes in the vacuum. This is a special case of a spherical motion and this fundamental difference between its power from any of the gyroscope. Formation of such a fluctuation around a fixed point — the center of mass on the basis of the principle of least action (Hamilton principle) leads to coherent oscillation of a rotor.

“The motion of a physical body, when only one of its point O remains fixed at all times, is called the movement (rotation) of a rigid body around a fixed point. In this case, all the points move over the surfaces of the concentric spheres, the centers of which are at the point, therefore, such movement is called a spherical body movement”. It is possible to compare each point of a rotor with a dot element of mass, such coordinated behavior can be regarded as the group quantum phenomenon in the vacuum. The experimental data obtained in the vacuum apparatus demonstrate a significant 2.5N and action on the distance of entropic forces.

The rotor spherical movement is enabled by its full angular rotations by harmonic laws, that are shift to 90° relative to one another and conducted alternatively through angular movement (Ɵx, Ɵy and Ɵz) of its points for the minimum and equal time intervals around each of the fixed Cartesian coordinate axes x, y and z.

The Holographic Principle asserts that its origin must lie in the number of fundamental degrees of freedom involved in a unified description of spacetime and matter. Our Universe contains just two dimensions of length was first proposed in 1993, exciting theoretical physicists, (G. ’t Hooft, “Dimensional reduction in quantum gravity”). According to ‘t Hooft the combination of quantum mechanics and gravity requires the three-dimensional world to be an image of data that can be stored on a two-dimensional projection much like a holographic image. The two-dimensional description only requires one discrete degree of freedom per Planck area and yet it is rich enough to describe all three-dimensional phenomena.

According to the Holographic Principle, the physics of our 3D (3+1) -dimensional space-time is equivalent to the physics on hypersurface with the dimension of 2D. The physics in 2D is simpler than in 3D, for example, laws of mechanics are not simply declared but is shown as they appear on the output and all it submits to the principle of smaller action. «In a certain sense, the world is two dimensional and not three dimensional as previously supposed» («The World as a Hologram» Leonard Susskind).

This is reminiscent of a hologram. Usually, holography is studied in relativistic contexts. However, the gravitational force is also present in our daily non-relativistic world. Holography is an optical technology by which a three-dimensional image is stored on a two-dimensional surface via a diffraction pattern. Light rays play a key role for the imaging. But, the holographic code is not a straightforward projection, as in ordinary photography; its relation to the three-dimensional image is rather complicated, but nevertheless, it can be «projected» onto a distant ”viewing screen” with no loss of information. This fully corresponds to the fact that all physics and all laws encoded of the underlying microscopic theory on the cosmological horizon of the holographic screen of the Universe.

It is logical to assume that if the optical holography demands — the coherent fluctuation of light, then the properties of the holographic Universe may be somehow associated with coherent fluctuation classical the physical body.

On the simulator, we can see the subsequent reaction the projects of the particles with a measuring device fixes the value of the classical physical quantities and their distribution of probabilities on the coordinates holographic spherical surface. Coherent orthogonal vibrations rotor MGEF around each of the axes of Cartesian coordinates fixed, too lead to them to nodes and antinodes — gradients acceleration of elements of mass. This means that the gradient of the entropy associated with the movement of matter occupies six diametrically opposite sites on the spherical surface (screen). Moving these gradients entropy ΔS on the screen can be carried out by with the help computer without time delay.

To demonstrate the possibilities of generating artificial gravity forces we define that very important:

The universality of gravity suggests that its emergence should be understood from general principles that are independent of the specific details of the underlying microscopic theory. The microscopic details are irrelevant for us.

Thus, we are going to assume that information is stored on surface or screen. Screen separate points, and in this way are the natural place to store information about projects of particles that move from one side to the other. Although the bits of information are encoded on a two — dimensional screen the observed images appear three dimensional since their nature is holographic.

Let’s consider the main steps for artificial obtaining gravitational force (Fg):

Communication between entropy and information consists that change of information of (I) represents negative change of entropy of (S),

ΔI = — ΔS

and the information stored change of temperature,

I = ΔT

We can express the entropy change in terms of the acceleration. Thus, we conclude that acceleration is related to an entropy gradient. This will be one of our main principles.

ΔS ∼ α

In the limit of a very large region, the bonding surface can be taken to be a flat plane at infinity. In some way, the phenomena taking place in three-dimensional space can be projected onto a distant ”viewing screen” with no loss of information. So oscillations have the direction of accelerations.

In this regard, we will consider work of a spherical rotor in the spherical stator in a vacuum and the rotationally invariant description of three-dimensional сoherent fluctuations and its rotary accelerations: αC.

Consequently, the six centers artificially created of diametrically opposite rotary acceleration of the rotor mass taking place in three-dimensional space can be projected onto a distant ”viewing screen” with no loss of information. We conclude that the entropy bound is well-defined and testable in a vast class of solutions. This includes all thermodynamic systems and cosmologies presently known or considered realistic.

The existence of a large-scale dipole asymmetry of the Universe («сosmic microwave background radiation anisotropies — the redshift or temperature gradient ΔT and the rapid movement of the center diametrically opposite antinodes gradients of entropy (ΔS) with zero values rotary acceleration of the rotor during the displacement (s) on the diametrically opposite surface sections of makes an impulse and leads towards «long-range» force.

F =ΔTΔS,

it is the universal law for any forces and interactions in our Universe. Therefore, it is fair and for gravitational force, where gradients of entropy — caused by the movement of matter.

Fg = ΔTΔS,

Where Fg — the gravitational force, ΔT- global temperature gradient at the cosmological horizon, ΔS gradients of entropy caused by the movement on the holographic screen (the entropy caused by the coherently fluctuating of matter ).

This is a natural choice since in this case, the entire screen uses the same time coordinate. So the processing of the microscopic data on the screen can be done using signals that travel without time delay.

Examining the results of the work of the computer simulator «IsAN» and summing up the previous logic we can conclude: that the mass of particles and the microphysical interaction (electromagnetic, strong and weak) emerge from the coherent oscillation of projections. Because they move gradient of entropy on the spherical holographic screen on the background a global gradient of temperature — anisotropy of the Universe and have from the mutual intersection of statistical trajectories. Gravity — thermodynamic cooperative quantum phenomenon too can be presented it as a superposition of entropy forces on spherical holographic screen. Gravity has a thermodynamical background, and the gravitational force is an entropic force without a corresponding microphysical interaction. The logic is clearly different from traditional representation, and sheds new light on the origin of mass, forces, and gravity: it is an entropic force. their emergence is obliged from temperature anisotropy of the Universe when moving projections of accelerating matter on the holographic screen.

I all life was looking mechanism of traveling and exchange of information in the Universe without delay of time. It turns out that this is possible and we do not violate the fundamental laws of physics.

Today it is possible if to assume that the Holographic Principle works. We have no real way of knowing what’s viable until we actually give it a shot. Experimental and theoretical prerequisites have long passed the critical level.

We need to get the gravitational force in unusual gyroscope and prove the Holographic Principle. If after demonstration of gravitational force we continue to ignore the Holographic Principle, then it will be necessary to consider the obvious violation of the law of conservation of momentum, of the entire theoretical foundation of physics. But it’s simple, simply impossible. So It is easier to adopt a Holographic Principle as the basis of this foundation.

If on the stand (on a massive plate) we establish of the gyroscope of MGEF can «feel» global gradient of temperature — image in real time, the image of the Universe which is billions of years old. Further, increasing the sensitivity, for example, interferometers can we get more information, but more importantly in real time.The channel for such exchange is the holographic surface of the Universe — its holographic screen. There is an opportunity to communicate at a distance of tens of billions of light years in a holographic-gravity way without restriction with the velocity of light and without breaking laws of physics.If there are advanced civilizations, they will use this channel of communication.

Details and how to this practically implement on my site: www.isan.com.ua

### Across the Universe

Apollo 11 was the space mission deliver American astronauts Neil Amstrong, Edwin Aldrin and Michael Collins to the Moon in July 1969. The duration of this space travels eight days.

But already when planning space flights to other planets of the solar system, the duration of the trip become an important factor to be reckoned with. Long stay in space dramatically complicates the mission.

For example, today, in order to reach Venus with the least expenditure of fuel, it takes about 110 days, Mars — 167.

But is there a speed limit beyond which our swiftly rushing bodies can no longer withstand?

The current record of speed record equally belongs to three astronauts who participated in the space mission «Apollo 10» — Tom Stafford, John Young and Eugene Cernan.

In 1969, when astronauts flew around the moon and came back, the capsule they were in, developed a speed that would be 39,897 km/h. In fact, there is no limit to the speed with which we can move, except to the speed of light.

Of course, this requires the use of efficient engines and the time of travel to the planets of Solar System can be significantly reduced. The flight duration essentially increases if we want to fly to other stars and other galaxies. Here the time factor becomes crucial. The speed of the spacecraft on various sections of the path is limited by the limiting acceleration that passengers and the volume of the fuel of the engine can carry for a long time.

As alternative such engines, suggest using an unusual gyroscope. His work is described on my site: www.isan.com.ua

In fact, it is a computer-controlled generator of entropic (gravity) forces, possessing action at a distance and have wide diapason of power. Varying the values of the mass of the rotor of an unusual gyroscope and the speed of the coherent oscillation, its rotational accelerations, according to Newton’s second law, we can lay the necessary power on a large scale in the design of spacecraft. This is the first device for controlling gravity, which does not violate the fundamental laws of physics, is environmentally friendly, and does not require the use of exotic masses and energies. Fundamental theory in the base of an unusual gyroscope — Holographic Principle.

- an engine that does not require a propellant,
- a movement that bypasses the general speed limit,
- and most importantly, we have a breakthrough way of obtaining energy for the unusual gyroscope, which naturally arises from the coherent oscillations of its rotor (its mass elements) in a vacuum.

So, the advantage of an unusual gyro as an engine is the lack of fuel on board.

For flights in the solar system, today we can limit ourselves to the insignificant thrust of a very small engine based on an unusual gyroscope with the generation of entropic forces of about 30 N. In open space, a ship weighing about 100 tons to moved with accelerated of 30×10¯³ m/s².

This acceleration is enough to get the accumulate the high speed for interplanetary flight and to get to Mars in 4 days.

If we equip the spacecraft with such an engine, but with more power, which is quite realistic, it will be possible to move with a constant acceleration of 10m/s², and passengers will feel superb. There will be no state of weightlessness. People will stand at the bottom of the spacecraft cabin in the same way as they did in different rooms during normal life on Earth and will experience the same physical sensations, including the same weight of individual parts of their body and weight other subjects. This is explained by the fact that the acceleration of gravity on the Earth is practically the same, and is equal to 9.81 m/s².

Of course, it is too early to talk about the specific values of the entropy (gravitational) forces obtained on an unusual gyroscope, as the project is practically not implemented. However, numerous data obtained in the experimental setup demonstrate the possibility of generating commensurate with powers of entropy forces necessary for the realization of such accelerations.

So, for interstellar travel, we will proceed from the possible constant acceleration of 10m/s².

With such acceleration over huge distances, the speed can reach very large values. And at high speeds, the classical laws of mechanics, Newton’s laws, are limited by the scale of applicability. It is necessary to use the laws given by Einstein’s theory of relativity. The laws of relativity, are also limited by the scale of applicability, and therefore dark matter was introduced.

In the opinion of cosmologists, dark matter can be the initial (emerging at the time of the Big Bang) defects of space, which can allow a spacecraft with a constant «earth» value of acceleration to cross the space somewhat faster. For the convenience of calculations, we have chosen a coefficient (topological defect) of space equal to 2.

To perform the calculations, it is more convenient for us to assume that the ratio of the entropic force generated by an unusual gyroscope to the mass of the spacecraft remains constant throughout the motion, and this ratio is quite real (realizable in practice):

** b = 10 m/s² 1.**

If, for cosmic flights, classical mechanics operated toward the stars and galaxies, then during the entire time of the motion the acceleration **α **would be constant and the equality would be valid:

** α = b. 2.**

The theory of relativity gives the following form for instantaneous acceleration:

** α = b (1 — v²/c²)½, 3.**

where v is the speed of the spaceship at **α** given moment, **c** is the speed of light in a vacuum. For very small velocities **v** in comparison with the speed of light, formulas (2) and (3) practically give the same acceleration value, but when the ratio **v/c** is not very small, formula (2) is already incorrect.

If the motion were to follow the laws of classical mechanics, the acceleration would be constant and equal **b.** Then the velocity **v** and the traversed path **S** in time **t** after the start of motion would be determined by the formulas:

** v = b****t. 4.**

** S = b t²/2. 5.**

However, as the speed increases, and approaching it to the speed of light, the acceleration will decrease. Because of this, the formula for speed and traversed path at time **t,** given by relativistic mechanics, ie, mechanics based on the theory of relativity, have the following form:

** v = bt****/(1 + b² t²/c²)½. 6.**

** S = (c²/b) ((1 + b² t²/c²)½ -1). 7.**

From the standpoint of classical mechanics, the speed of the body can become arbitrarily large. We can see this in formula (4). The main law of relativistic mechanics is the law on the impossibility of overcoming the speed of light. If the time **t** is unlimitedly increased in formula (6), then the velocity **v** will increase, it will approach the speed of light, but it will never exceed it.

The theory of relativity asserts that the course of time in two moving systems relative to one another is different. Namely, if at the initial moment, when the spacecraft rested on the surface of the Earth, the time course for its passengers and the course of time for the inhabitants of the Earth was the same, then after the spacecraft began to move, the course of time would slow down in it. A small time interval **t2 — t1** on the Earth will correspond to a small time interval in the rocket **τ2 — τ1**

** τ2 — τ1 = t2 — t1 (1- v²/c²)½. 8.**

This means that if astronauts leave the Earth, fly at high speeds, and then return to Earth, it turns out that from separation and until the meeting time, they passed significantly less than the inhabitants of the Earth. One of the twins traveling in space, after returning, will be younger than the twin that remained on Earth. Moreover, the father, who left a young son on the Earth and made a space trip at high speeds, can, after returning to Earth, remain a relatively young man, his son to be a decrepit old man.

If the motion occurs with a constant, as we took the ratio b of the rocket thrust forces to its mass, then from the relation (8) one can obtain a connection between the time t passed on the Earth and the time τ passed by the аstronauts,

** τ = (c/b)(Arsh bt/c), 9.**

where **Arsh** is a function inverse to the so-called hyperbolic sine. The tables of this function are given in many mathematical reference books. According to formula (9),** τ** is always less than **t**, and the more **t** the more important is the difference between **τ** and **t**. This effect is sometimes called the relativistic extension of time.

In the table for different distances, the time necessary for the spacecraft to pass as an engine of an unusual gyroscope is calculated, for which the ratio of the entropy (gravitational) pull force to the mass is constant all the time and equal to **10 m/s²** In the second column, the time is given by classical mechanics according to formula (5) is given. In fact, the spacecraft will not move according to the laws of classical mechanics, since the speeds achieved are very large. According to the formula (4), they are also obtained many times more than the speed of light, and we give this column only to show how erroneous the results of classical mechanics are in such cases. The third column calculates the time that will pass on Earth until the spacecraft reaches the specified distance. At** b = 10 m/s²**, the spacecraft already at a distance of 1/2 ps will develop a speed very close to the speed of light, and therefore at distances of many parsecs the time required for flight is practically the same as the time needed for the passage of light, starting with the fifth line, the data in the third column are numerically equal to the number of light years at the specified distance.

The enormous saving of time that flows in the spacecraft, in comparison with the time on the Earth, is achieved due to the fact that the overwhelming majority

The spacecraft is moving at a speed very close to the speed of light. In this case, as the formula (8) shows, the time interval **τ2 — τ1** can be very small in comparison with the time interval **t2 — t1**.

In general, the table shows that if the constant ratio of the traction force of an unusual gyro to a mass of the spacecraft equal to **10 m/s²** is maintained at all times, then a visit to any areas of the Universe that we survey is available to a person. Even for the achievement of remote galaxy accumulations located at a distance of 1000 Mpc, with a useful weight of 1000 T stars and comfortable acceleration, it will take only 11 years. If the topology of space is greater, then for 11 years you can fly the entire universe. All previous calculations were carried out on the assumption that the experimental data confirm the order of the entropy forces and they can be ensured during the entire time considered at the expense of the energy of the holographic screen. Then, as a result of using an engine based on an unusual gyro, the constant value of the thrust force to the mass of the spacecraft will be **10 m/s²**.

Let’s see now, is it possible to achieve practically effective space flights without using an unusual gyroscope as a spacecraft engine? What will the energy calculation show for conventional reactive technology in space?

It is easy to see that the currently used space rocket engines burning chemical fuels are dangerous, «environmentally dirty», completely ineffective for travel to the planets of the solar system, and are generally not suitable for travel to the stars and galaxies.

The most important role is played by the velocity **ω**, with which the gases forming during combustion fly out from the rocket nozzle. The more this speed, the greater the acceleration in the opposite direction will the rocket have. The speed of the emission of gases is greater the higher the temperature of the combustion. The temperature is limited by the ability of the material from which the rocket nozzle is made to withstand high temperatures, do not melt. The limit in this respect is 4000 K. At such a combustion temperature, from some types of fuels, it is possible to obtain a release velocity **ω** of about 4 km/s.

In astronautics the formula is known:

** v/ω = 2.3 lg (m0/m), 10**

**m0** is the mass of the rocket with fuel, **m** is the mass of the rocket after the combustion of the fuel, **ω** is the velocity of emission of gases from the nozzle, and **v **is the velocity that the rocket will acquire after the fuel is consumed. This formula is true only in the framework of classical mechanics when both the velocity of the emitted gases and the speed achieved by the rocket are very small in comparison with the speed of light. Both these conditions are observed in this calculation.

We see that the magnitude of the speed achieved by the rocket is greater, the larger the ratio of the mass of the rocket with the fuel to its mass without fuel. But how great can this attitude be? Suppose unlikely that we managed to build a rocket in which 0.999999 mass% is fuel so that the weight after the fuel consumption is only one-millionth of the rocket’s weight at the start. Then the right-hand side of (10) will be 13.8 and, therefore, if the gas emission rate is 4 km/s, the rocket can reach a speed of 55.2 km / s. Until very high speeds are achieved and classical, mechanics can be used, the constant ratio of the traction force to the rocket mass is 10 m/s2 equal to the acceleration of the rocket. The speed of 55.2 km/s will be reached after 2760 seconds when the traveled path will be equal to 76,000 km. After this distance, the fuel will be exhausted, the device of the rocket will cease to function.

Thus, the currently used method in astronautics rocket propulsion with the combustion of chemical fuel cannot be used to fly to the stars and galaxies. It is fit only within the Solar System and only because at the moment there is no alternative to such movement in space — engines based on an unusual gyroscope — a generator of gravitational forces.

The idea of this article and calculations, as well as the description of flights in the universe with the help of the then still unknown gravitational-holographic method of displacement in space, belongs to the well-known scientist, Soviet and Russian astronomer, professor of St. Petersburg University **Tateos Artemievich Agyekyan.**

Predicted almost 60 years ago, ways of travel in space can find opportunities for a practical inquiry after prototyping an unusual gyroscope today.

**References.**

- Tateos Artemievich Aghekyan «Stars, galaxies, metagalaxies». 1 st ed. L., 1966 (3rd ed. — M., 1981).

http://iaaras.ru/media/library/Agekyan_zvezdy_galaktika_metagalaktika_1981.pdf